CDC details on the guidelines can be found here: https://www.cdc.gov/
Some quick summary points:
Yes. The COVID vaccine has been very well studied, and so far, side effects have been minimal. They include injection pain and low-grade fever.
The technology used for these vaccines was developed years ago for similar corona viruses. Most importantly, the entire world and governments pumped significant funding into developing the vaccine. Available funding allowed for the construction of manufacturing plants even before the vaccine testing was completed.
The current recommendation is yes. It is thought that the vaccine strengthens immunity over a longer period than the disease.
Wearing masks and social distancing help reduce your chances of being exposed to the virus or spreading it to others, but these measures are not enough. Vaccines work to strengthen your immune system so you can be ready to fight the virus if you are exposed.
Yes. The COVID vaccine prevents serious diseases in 95% of people. There will be 5% who may still get very sick. Additionally, it is thought that you can still transmit COVID to your loved ones if you get exposed to the vaccine, even if you don’t get sick.
At this time, the science suggests that if you are exposed to the virus, you can become infected again and transmit the virus to another person, even if you don’t become very sick yourself. Remember to wear your masks, social distance, and perform hand hygiene as recommended.